This page contains workflow references that emphasize Petri nets, workflow patterns, and their formal foundations.  

General
Materials that address topics important for understanding key process/workflow concepts and terms.


Books
van Benthem J, van Ditmarsch H, van Eijck J, Jaspars J. Logic in Action, 2014 

van der  Aalst W, Stahk C. Modeling Business Processes: A Petri Net-Oriented Approach. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; 2011

Hofstede A, van der Aalst WP, Adams M, Russel N.  Modern Business Process Automation: YAWL and Its Support Environment. Heidelberg: New York, 2010.  

Epp SS. Discrete Mathematics with Applications.  4th ed. Pacific Grove, CABrooks/Cole Publishing Co; 2010

van der  Aalst W, van Hee K. Workflow Management: Models, Methods, and Systems. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; 2004


Websites
Object Management Group

Business Process Modeling and Notation (BPMN)
Unified Modeling Language (UML)

Process Mining
Health analytics using process mining

Workflow Management Coalition
Workflow Terms and Definitions

Workflow Patterns Initiative
Workflow Patterns       

Yet Another Workflow Language (YAWL

Key Articles
Kurt Jensen and Lars M. Kristensen. 2015. Colored Petri nets: a graphical language for formal modeling and validation of concurrent systems. Commun. ACM 58, 6 (May 2015), 61-70.  

Combi, C.; Gambini, M.; Migliorini, S.; Posenato, R., “Representing Business Processes Through a Temporal Data-Centric Workflow Modeling Language: An Application to the Management of Clinical Pathways,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.PP, no.99, pp.1,1

Augusto, V.; Xiaolan Xie, “A Modeling and Simulation Framework for Health Care Systems,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.44, no.1, pp.30,46, Jan. 2014.

N. Russell, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, W.M.P. van der Aalst, and N. Mulyar. Workflow Control-Flow Patterns: A Revised View. BPM Center Report BPM-06-22 , BPMcenter.org, 2006.

N. Russell, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, D. Edmond, and W.M.P. van der Aalst. Workflow Data Patterns. QUT Technical report, FIT-TR-2004-01, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, 2004.  

Murata T. Petri nets: Properties, analysis and application. Proceedings of the IEEE , vol.77, no.4, pp.541,580, Apr 1989

Van Der Aalst, W. M., & Ter Hofstede, A. H. (2005). YAWL: yet another workflow language. Information systems, 30(4), 245-275.

Articles
2015
Perimal-Lewis L, Teubner D, Hakendorf P, Horwood C. Application of process mining to assess the data quality of routinely collected time-based performance data sourced from electronic health records by validating process conformance. Health Informatics J. 2015 Oct 11. [E]

Kosinar, M.A.; Czopik, J.; Stolfa, J.; Penhaker, M., "Knowledge framework for clinical processes architecture and analysis," Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI), 2015 IEEE 13th International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.307,311, 22-24 Jan. 2015.

Karen G. Cheng, Gillian R. Hayes, Sen H. Hirano, Marni S. Nagel, and Dianne Baker. 2015. Challenges of integrating patient-centered data into clinical workflow for care of high-risk infants.Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 19, 1. January 2015. 

Andrew Partington, Moe Wynn, Suriadi Suriadi, Chun Ouyang, and Jonathan Karnon. 2015. Process Mining for Clinical Processes: A Comparative Analysis of Four Australian Hospitals. ACM Trans. Manage. Inf. Syst. 5, 4, Article 19, January 2015.

2014
Tiago Oliveira, Paulo Novais, and José Neves. 2014. Development and implementation of clinical guidelines: An artificial intelligence perspective. Artif. Intell. Rev. 42, 4, December 2014.

Braun, R.; Schlieter, H.; Burwitz, M.; Esswein, W., "BPMN4CP: Design and implementation of a BPMN extension for clinical pathways," Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM), 2014 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.9,16, 2-5 Nov. 2014

Bernard Kamsu-Foguem, Germaine Tchuenté-Foguem, and Clovis Foguem. 2014. Using conceptual graphs for clinical guidelines representation and knowledge visualization. Information Systems Frontiers 16, 4. September 2014.

Braun, R.; Schlieter, H., "Requirements-based development of BPMN extensions: The case of clinical pathways," Interrelations between Requirements Engineering and Business Process Management (REBPM), 2014 IEEE 1st International Workshop on the , vol., no., pp.39,44, 25-25 Aug. 2014

Wei Yang; Qiang Su, "Process mining for clinical pathway: Literature review and future directions," Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM), 2014 11th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,5, 25-27 June 2014.

Andreas Lanz, Barbara Weber, and Manfred Reichert. 2014. Time patterns for process-aware information systems. Requir. Eng. 19, 2. June 2014).

Rose, J.; Noumeir, R., "Modeling of community pharmacy dispensing process," Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI), 2014 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on , vol., no., pp.436,439, 1-4 June 2014.

Yamasathien, S.; Vatanawood, W., "An approach to construct formal model of business process model from BPMN workflow patterns," Digital Information and Communication Technology and it's Applications (DICTAP), 2014 Fourth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.211,215, 6-8 May 2014.

Zhichao Zhou; Yong Wang; Lin Li, "Process mining based modeling and analysis of workflows in clinical care - A case study in a chicago outpatient clinic," Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC), 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.590,595, 7-9 April 2014.

Koukovini, M.N.; Papagiannakopoulou, E.I.; Lioudakis, G.V.; Dellas, N.; Kaklamani, D.I.; Venieris, I.S., "An ontology-based approach towards comprehensive workflow modelling," Software, IET , vol.8, no.2, pp.73,85, April 2014.

Combi, C.; Gambini, M.; Migliorini, S.; Posenato, R., "Representing Business Processes Through a Temporal Data-Centric Workflow Modeling Language: An Application to the Management of Clinical Pathways," Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.PP, no.99, pp.1,1

Shusaku Tsumoto, Haruko Iwata, Shoji Hirano, and Yuko Tsumoto. 2014. Similarity-based behavior and process mining of medical practices. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 33 (April 2014), 21-31.

Fu-Shiung Hsieh and Jim-Bon Lin. 2014. Development of context-aware workflow systems based on Petri Net Markup Language. Comput. Stand. Interfaces 36, 3 (March 2014), 672-685.

Matthew L. Nelson and Ravi Sen. 2014. Business rules management in healthcare: A lifecycle approach. Decis. Support Syst. 57 (January 2014), 387-394.

2013
Renaud Bougueng Tchemeube, Daniel Amyot, and Alain Mouttham. 2013. Location-aware business process management for real-time monitoring of a cardiac care process. In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the Center for Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research (CASCON '13). IBM Corp., Riverton, NJ, USA, 230-244. 

Wil M. Aalst. 2013. Decomposing Petri nets for process mining: A generic approach. Distrib. Parallel Databases 31, 4 (December 2013), 471-507. 

André Heuer, Vanessa Stricker, Christof J. Budnik, Sascha Konrad, Kim Lauenroth, and Klaus Pohl. 2013. Defining variability in activity diagrams and Petri nets. Sci. Comput. Program. 78, 12 (December 2013), 2414-2432. 

Ronny Mans, Hajo Reijers, Daniel Wismeijer, and Michiel Van Genuchten. 2013. A process-oriented methodology for evaluating the impact of IT: A proposal and an application in healthcare. Inf. Syst. 38, 8 (November 2013), 1097-1115.

GuanJun Liu; ChangJun Jiang; MengChu Zhou; PengCheng Xiong, “Interactive Petri Nets,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.43, no.2, pp.291,302, March 2013.

Tiplea, F.L.; Bocaneala, C., “Priority Workflow Nets,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.43, no.2, pp.402,415, March 2013.

2012
Haddar, N.; Tmar, M.; Gargouri, F., “Implementation of a Data-driven Workflow Management System,” Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), 2012 IEEE 15th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.111,118, 5-7 Dec. 2012

Hiraishi, K.; Choe, S.; Torii, K.; Uchihira, N.; Tanaka, T., "Modeling of complex processes in nursing and caregiving services," Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1449,1454, 14-17 Oct. 2012

Mahulea, C.; Garcia-Soriano, J.; Colom, J., "Modular Petri net modeling of the Spanish health system," Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,8, 17-21 Sept. 2012

Fanti, M.P.; Iacobellis, G.; Mangini, A.M.; Ukovich, W., “A three level strategy for the design and performance evaluation of Hospital Departments: A case study,” Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.323,328, 20-24 Aug. 2012

Sharabiani, A.; Darabi, H., “Observation policies for patient and resource tracking in outpatient clinics,” Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.532,537, 20-24 Aug. 2012

Maria Pia Fanti, Stefano Mininel, Walter Ukovich, and Federica Vatta. 2012. Modelling alarm management workflow in healthcare according to IHE framework by coloured Petri Nets. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell. 25, 4 (June 2012), 728-733.

Hashemian, N.; Abidi, S.S.R., "Modeling clinical workflows using business process modeling notation," Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), 2012 25th International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1,4, 20-22 June 2012.

Serge Abiteboul, Pierre Bourhis, and Victor Vianu. 2012. Comparing workflow specification languages: A matter of views. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 37, 2, Article 10 (June 2012), 59 pages.

Álvaro Rebuge and Diogo R. Ferreira. 2012. Business process analysis in healthcare environments: A methodology based on process mining. Inf. Syst. 37, 2 (April 2012), 99-116.

Jochen De Weerdt, Filip Caron, Jan Vanthienen,and Bart Baesens. 2012. Getting a grasp on clinical pathway data: an approach based on process mining. In Proceedings of the 2012 Pacific-Asia conference on Emerging Trends in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD'12), Takashi Washio and Jun Luo (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 22-35.

Anna Gogolinska and Wieslaw Nowak. 2012. Petri nets approach to modeling of immune system and autism. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Artificial Immune Systems(ICARIS'12), Carlos A. Coello Coello, Julie Greensmith, Natalio Krasnogor, Pietro Liò, and Giuseppe Nicosia (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 86-99.

Grando MA, Glasspool D, Fox J. A formal approach to the analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages. Artif Intell Med. 2012 Jan;54(1):1-13.

M. Adela Grando, David Glasspool, and John Fox. 2012. A formal approach to the analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages. Artif. Intell. Med. 54, 1 (January 2012), 1-13.

Roberta Gazzarata, Fabio Vergari, Jan-Marc Verlinden, Francesco Morandi, Simone Naso, Viola Parodi, Tullio Salmon Cinotti, and Mauro Giacomini.  The integration of e-health into the clinical workflow --- electronic health record and standardization efforts. In Proceedings of the 10th international smart homes and health telematics conference on Impact Ananlysis of Solutions for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (ICOST'12), Mark Donnelly, Cristiano Paggetti, Chris Nugent, and Mounir Mokhtari (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 107-115. 2012

2011
Alachhab, M.; Mohajir, M.E., “Graphical specification and formal verification of the Workflow Petri Nets properties in a business process context,” Information Science and Technology (CIST), 2011 Colloquium in , vol., no., pp.15,15, 11-12 May 2011

Poernomo, I.; Umarov, T.; Hajiyev, F., “Formal ontologies for data-centric business process management,” Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT), 2011 5th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,8, 12-14 Oct. 2011

Qijun Du, “The research of Petri net-based workflow,” Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.4171,4172, 16-18 Sept. 2011

Sarah-Jane Whittaker. 2011. Augmenting Petri Nets to Model Health-Care Protocols. Ph.D. Dissertation. Queen's University, Kingston, Ont., Canada, Canada. AAINR78474.

Neela, D.; Rangarajan, K., “Hybrid Workflow Net Based Architecture for Modeling Huntington’s Disease,” Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA), 2011 Sixth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.319,323, 27-29 Sept. 2011

Dongdong Xie; Wenning Hao; Dawei Jin; Gang Chen; Shuining Zhao, “The research of Petri-net workflow modeling,” Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1842,1845, 16-18 Sept. 2011

Hong Jiang; Xiangqian Ding; Ruichun Hou; Huimin Yue, “Modeling of hierarchical Petri net-based workflow,” Computing, Control and Industrial Engineering (CCIE), 2011 IEEE 2nd International Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.113,116, 20-21 Aug. 2011

Li Li; Xiaobo Yue; Bozhao Yan; Kaiqing Zhou, “Workflow model based on colored and timed Petri nets,” Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.3795,3798, 16-18 April 2011

Wendy MacCaull and Fazle Rabbi. 2011. NOVA workflow: a workflow management tool targeting health services delivery. In Proceedings of the First international conference on Foundations of Health Informatics Engineering and Systems (FHIES'11), Zhiming Liu and Alan Wassyng (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 75-92.

Cristiano Bertolini, Martin Schäf, and Volker Stolz. 2011. Towards a formal integrated model of collaborative healthcare workflows. In Proceedings of the First international conference on Foundations of Health Informatics Engineering and Systems (FHIES'11), Zhiming Liu and Alan Wassyng (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 57-74.

Thomas Hildebrandt, Raghava Rao Mukkamala, and Tijs Slaats. 2011. Declarative modelling and safe distribution of healthcare workflows. In Proceedings of the First international conference on Foundations of Health Informatics Engineering and Systems (FHIES'11), Zhiming Liu and Alan Wassyng (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 39-56.

2010
Leite CR, Martin DL, Sizilio GR, Dos Santos KE, de Araujo BG, Valentim RA, Neto AD, de Melo JD, Guerreiro AM. Modeling of medical care with stochastic Petri Nets. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:1336-9.

Dotoli, M.; Fanti, M.P.; Iacobellis, G.; Martino, L.; Moretti, A. M.; Ukovich, W., "Modeling and management of a hospital department via Petri nets," Health Care Management (WHCM), 2010 IEEE Workshop on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 18-20 Feb. 2010

Mikolajczak, B.; Shenoy, M., "Flexibility through case handling in careflow systems: A case study of cutaneous melanoma," Health Care Management (WHCM), 2010 IEEE Workshop on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 18-20 Feb. 2010

2009
Xu Da-hua, "Simulating on CIS based on Petri-Net," IT in Medicine & Education, 2009. ITIME '09. IEEE International Symposium on , vol.1, no., pp.1132,1135, 14-16 Aug. 2009

2008
Gang Du; Zhibin Jiang; Xiaodi Diao, "The integrated modeling and framework of clinical pathway adaptive workflow management system based on Extended Workflow-nets (EWF-nets)," Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, 2008. IEEE/SOLI 2008. IEEE International Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.914,919, 12-15 Oct. 2008

Junhua Ding; Tabrizi, M. N H, "Modeling and Model Checking of a Clinical Diagnostic Algorithm," Networking, Sensing and Control, 2008. ICNSC 2008. IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.78,83, 6-8 April 2008

Fox J, Black E, Chronakis I, Dunlop R, Patkar V, South M, Thomson R. From guidelines to careflows: modelling and supporting complex clinical processes. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;139:44-62.

2007
Dammasch, K.; Horton, G., "Active Tokens for Modelling Mental Health Care with Coloured Stochastic Petri Nets," Innovations in Information Technology, 2007. IIT '07. 4th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.541,545, 18-20 Nov. 2007

Criswell, M.; Hasan, I.; Kopach, R.; Lambert, S.; Lawley, M.; McWilliams, D.; Trupiano, G.; Varadarajan, N., "Emergency Department Divert Avoidance Using Petri Nets," System of Systems Engineering, 2007. SoSE '07. IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 16-18 April 2007

2006
Liang Zhang, “Research on Workflow Patterns based on Petri nets,” Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, 2006 IEEE Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 1-3 June 2006

Zhigang Liang; Bai, S., “Role Based Workflow Modeling,” Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2006. SMC ’06. IEEE International Conference on , vol.6, no., pp.4845,4849, 8-11 Oct. 2006

van Hee, K.; Oanea, O.; Post, R.; Somers, L.; van der Werf, J.M., “Yasper: a tool for workflow modeling and analysis,” Application of Concurrency to System Design, 2006. ACSD 2006. Sixth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.279,282, 28-30 June 2006

2004
Wenqi Yang; Feng Li, “Workflow modeling: a structured approach,” Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design, 2004. Proceedings. The 8th International Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.433,438 Vol.1, 26-28 May 2004

Dong, Yang; Quan, Wen; Shensheng, Zhang, “Modeling workflow using XML and Petri net,” Systems Engineering and Electronics, Journal of , vol.15, no.3, pp.440,446, Sept. 2004

2002
Peleg M, Yeh I, Altman RB. Modelling biological processes using workflow and Petri Net models. Bioinformatics. 2002 Jun;18(6):825-37.

Barkaoui, K.; Dechambre, Ph; Hachicha, R., “Verification and optimisation of an operating room workflow,” System Sciences, 2002. HICSS. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on , vol., no., pp.2581,2590, 7-10 Jan. 2002

1998
Coves, C.; Crestani, D.; Prunet, F., “Design and analysis of workflow processes with Petri nets,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1998. 1998 IEEE International Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.101,106 vol.1, 11-14 Oct 1998

1994
Huanxin Henry Xiong; MengChu Zhou; Manikopoulos, C.N., "Modeling and performance analysis of medical services systems using Petri nets," Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1994. Humans, Information and Technology., 1994 IEEE International Conference on , vol.3, no., pp.2339,2342 vol.3, 2-5 Oct 1994